# Roman Numbers - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

While you consider numbers nowadays, the first of all that springs to mind is the decimal method we utilize everyday. This method, however, is not the single approach to represent numericals. There are a lot of systems used by different cultures worldwide that utilize all kinds of symbols. Classified among many one of the approach is Roman numerals.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numbers have become a way of expressing numericals using a mixture of characters from the Latin alphabet. It persisted across the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the extend it is still taught in school, that is possibly why you have stumbled upon this article.

Today, we are going to check out Roman numerals, what they are, how they function, and how to transform Roman numerals to normal numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

First, let's look at a brief look at the history of Roman numbers. Roman numbers were initially utilized by the ancient Romans, as you may have expected from the name. They were used in multiple angles of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even war.

Nowadays, its widespread use is primarily because of its artistic reasons. You might have seen Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, chapter numbers, page numbering, copyright dates, or in movie sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman number approach represents numericals utilizing a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are mixed to form groups that represent numbers. Seven characters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, represent the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. You can then combine these numbers to depict any value in the number system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is founded on the concept of place value, Roman numbers are founded on cumulative and subtractive principles. This states that a Roman number's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its particular parts. One more major distinction is that the decimal method is based on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numerals are founded on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's look at a few interactive examples of Roman numerals.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades way back in 2008. If we look at the numericals in the title, we see it has a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman number is described by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Thus, we understand that this is the 4th to enter in the series employing the characteristics we will speak on subsequently in the article.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the last entry in the original trilogy. Observing the value described, it includes a V followed by an I. Therefore, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, concluding this Star Wars film is the 6th to enter the series.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is essential to know the numeric value of all the letters. To help make this operation easy, here is a chart with every Latin characters with allocated numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numerals to Decimal Numbers

Since we have the convenient table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that information to change numericals back and forth promptly. Following these steps, you will change these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numbers to Regular Numbers

To convert Roman numerals to decimal numericals, we will use the additive and subtractive principles we talked about.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman number to its right is smaller in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is more in value, deduct the Roman number on the right out of the Roman numbers to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this method until you arrive at the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's see how you can change Roman numerals with a some examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Initiate with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

The Roman numeral to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is less than 50, we add the two values and get 60.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is X again. We add 10 to 60 and the result is 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Since 5 is less than 70, we add the two values and get 75.

The Roman number to the right of V is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 75, we sum the two values and we find 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman number group. Consequently, the Roman numeral LXXVI is as same as the regular number 76.

### Example 2

Take into account the Roman number MCMIII.

Start at the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Since 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value stands at 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Since 1 is less than 1900, we add the two values and the result is 1901.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and the result is 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Given that we have arrived the end of the Roman numeral group, we halt here with our answer. Thus, the Roman numeral MCMIII is equivalent to the decimal number 1903.

With this information and a little practice, you will change Roman numerals to decimal numbers like a professional!

## Grade Potential Can Support You with Roman Numerals

If you struggle to get a grasp Roman numerals or any other math theories, don't be afraid to reach out to Grade Potential for guidance! Our experienced and knowledgeable teachers can guide you with Roman numerals and the rest of your math homework.

If you are seeking to maintain or do better, we’ll assist you excel in your academics so you can feel confident on examination day. Book a free consultation!